Browser environment, specs

The JavaScript language was initially created for web browsers. Since then, it has evolved and become a language with many uses and platforms.

A platform may be a browser, or a web-server, or a washing machine, or another host. Each of them provides platform-specific functionality. The JavaScript specification calls that a host environment.

A host environment provides platform-specific objects and functions additional to the language core. Web browsers give a means to control web pages. Node.js provides server-side features, and so on.

Here’s a bird’s-eye view of what we have when JavaScript runs in a web-browser:

There’s a “root” object called window. It has two roles:

  1. First, it is a global object for JavaScript code, as described in the chapter Evrensel Objeler.
  2. Second, it represents the “browser window” and provides methods to control it.

For instance, here we use it as a global object:

function sayHi() {

// global functions are accessible as properties of window

And here we use it as a browser window, to see the window height:

alert(window.innerHeight); // inner window height

There are more window-specific methods and properties, we’ll cover them later.

DOM (Document Object Model)

The document object gives access to the page content. We can change or create anything on the page using it.

For instance:

// change the background color to red = "red";

// change it back after 1 second
setTimeout(() => = "", 1000);

Here we used, but there’s much, much more. Properties and methods are described in the specification:

DOM is not only for browsers

The DOM specification explains the structure of a document and provides objects to manipulate it. There are non-browser instruments that use it too.

For instance, server-side tools that download HTML pages and process them use the DOM. They may support only a part of the specification though.

CSSOM for styling

CSS rules and stylesheets are not structured like HTML. There’s a separate specification CSSOM that explains how they are represented as objects, and how to read and write them.

CSSOM is used together with DOM when we modify style rules for the document. In practice though, CSSOM is rarely required, because usually CSS rules are static. We rarely need to add/remove CSS rules from JavaScript, so we won’t cover it right now.

BOM (Browser object model)

Browser Object Model (BOM) are additional objects provided by the browser (host environment) to work with everything except the document.

For instance:

  • The navigator object provides background information about the browser and the operating system. There are many properties, but the two most widely known are: navigator.userAgent – about the current browser, and navigator.platform – about the platform (can help to differ between Windows/Linux/Mac etc).
  • The location object allows us to read the current URL and can redirect the browser to a new one.

Here’s how we can use the location object:

alert(location.href); // shows current URL
if (confirm("Go to wikipedia?")) {
  location.href = ""; // redirect the browser to another URL

Functions alert/confirm/prompt are also a part of BOM: they are directly not related to the document, but represent pure browser methods of communicating with the user.

BOM is the part of the general HTML specification.

Yes, you heard that right. The HTML spec at is not only about the “HTML language” (tags, attributes), but also covers a bunch of objects, methods and browser-specific DOM extensions. That’s “HTML in broad terms”. Also, some parts have additional specs listed at


Talking about standards, we have:

DOM specification
Describes the document structure, manipulations and events, see
CSSOM specification
Describes stylesheets and style rules, manipulations with them and their binding to documents, see
HTML specification
Describes the HTML language (e.g. tags) and also the BOM (browser object model) – various browser functions: setTimeout, alert, location and so on, see It takes the DOM specification and extends it with many additional properties and methods.

Additionally, some classes are described separately at

Please note these links, as there’s so much stuff to learn it’s impossible to cover and remember everything.

When you’d like to read about a property or a method, the Mozilla manual at is also a nice resource, but the corresponding spec may be better: it’s more complex and longer to read, but will make your fundamental knowledge sound and complete.

To find something, it’s often convenient to use an internet search “WHATWG [term]” or “MDN [term]”, e.g,

Now we’ll get down to learning DOM, because the document plays the central role in the UI.

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