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URL objects

The built-in URL class provides a convenient interface for creating and parsing URLs.

There are no networking methods that require exactly an URL object, strings are good enough. So technically we don’t have to use URL. But sometimes it can be really helpful.

Creating an URL

The syntax to create a new URL object:

new URL(url, [base])
  • url – the URL string or path (if base is set, see below).
  • base – an optional base, if set and url has only path, then the URL is generated relative to base.

For example, these two URLs are same:

let url1 = new URL('https://javascript.info/profile/admin');
let url2 = new URL('/profile/admin', 'https://javascript.info');

alert(url1); // https://javascript.info/profile/admin
alert(url2); // https://javascript.info/profile/admin

Переход к пути относительно текущего URL:

let url = new URL('https://javascript.info/profile/admin');
let testerUrl = new URL('tester', url);

alert(testerUrl); // https://javascript.info/profile/tester

The URL object immediately allows us to access its components, so it’s a nice way to parse the url, e.g.:

let url = new URL('https://javascript.info/url');

alert(url.protocol); // https:
alert(url.host);     // javascript.info
alert(url.pathname); // /url

Here’s the cheatsheet:

  • href is the full url, same as url.toString()
  • protocol ends with the colon character :
  • search – a string of parameters, starts with the question mark ?
  • hash starts with the hash character #
  • there are also user and password properties if HTTP authentication is present.
We can use URL everywhere instead of a string

We can use an URL object in fetch or XMLHttpRequest, almost everywhere where a string url is expected.

In the vast majority of methods it’s automatically converted to a string.

SearchParams “?…”

Let’s say we want to create an url with given search params, for instance, https://google.com/search?query=JavaScript.

They must be correctly encoded to include non-latin charcters, spaces etc.

Some time ago, before URL objects appeared, we’d use built-in functions encodeURIComponent/decodeURIComponent. They have some problems, but now that doesn’t matter.

There’s URL property for that: url.searchParams is an object of type URLSearchParams.

It provides convenient methods for search parameters:

  • append(name, value) – add the parameter,
  • delete(name) – remove the parameter,
  • get(name) – get the parameter,
  • getAll(name) – get all parameters with that name (if many, e.g. ?user=John&user=Pete),
  • has(name) – check for the existance of the parameter,
  • set(name, value) – set/replace the parameter,
  • sort() – sort parameters by name, rarely needed,
  • …and also iterable, similar to Map.

So, URL object also provides an easy way to operate on url parameters.

For example:

let url = new URL('https://google.com/search');
url.searchParams.set('query', 'test me!'); // added parameter with a space and !

alert(url); // https://google.com/search?query=test+me%21

url.searchParams.set('tbs', 'qdr:y'); // add param for date range: past year

alert(url); // https://google.com/search?query=test+me%21&tbs=qdr%3Ay

// iterate over search parameters (decoded)
for(let [name, value] of url.searchParams) {
  alert(`${name}=${value}`); // query=test me!, then tbs=qdr:y
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