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Sticky flag "y", searching at position

To grasp the use case of y flag, and see how great it is, let’s explore a practical use case.

One of common tasks for regexps is “parsing”: when we get a text and analyze it for logical components, build a structure.

For instance, there are HTML parsers for browser pages, that turn text into a structured document. There are parsers for programming languages, like JavaScript, etc.

Writing parsers is a special area, with its own tools and algorithms, so we don’t go deep in there, but there’s a very common question in them, and, generally, for text analysis: “What kind of entity is at the given position?”.

For instance, for a programming language variants can be like:

  • Is it a “name” \w+?
  • Or is it a number \d+?
  • Or an operator [+-/*]?
  • (a syntax error if it’s not anything in the expected list)

So, we should try to match a couple of regular expressions, and make a decision what’s at the given position.

In JavaScript, how can we perform a search starting from a given position? Regular calls start searching from the text start.

We’d like to avoid creating substrings, as this slows down the execution considerably.

One option is to use regexp.exec with regexp.lastIndex property, but that’s not what we need, as this would search the text starting from lastIndex, while we only need to text the match exactly at the given position.

Here’s a (failing) attempt to use lastIndex:

let str = "(text before) function ...";

// attempting to find function at position 5:
let regexp = /function/g; // must use "g" flag, otherwise lastIndex is ignored
regexp.lastIndex = 5

alert (regexp.exec(str)); // function

The match is found, because regexp.exec starts to search from the given position and goes on by the text, successfully matching “function” later.

We could work around that by checking if "regexp.exec(str).index property is 5, and if not, ignore the match. But the main problem here is performance. The regexp engine does a lot of unnecessary work by scanning at further positions. The delays are clearly noticeable if the text is long, because there are many such searches in a parser.

The “y” flag

So we’ve came to the problem: how to search for a match exactly at the given position.

That’s what y flag does. It makes the regexp search only at the lastIndex position.

Here’s an example

let str = "(text before) function ...";

let regexp = /function/y;
regexp.lastIndex = 5;

alert (regexp.exec(str)); // null (no match, unlike "g" flag!)

regexp.lastIndex = 14;

alert (regexp.exec(str)); // function (match!)

As we can see, now the regexp is only matched at the given position.

So what y does is truly unique, and very important for writing parsers.

The y flag allows to test a regular expression exactly at the given position and when we understand what’s there, we can move on – step by step examining the text.

Without the flag the regexp engine always searches till the end of the text, that takes time, especially if the text is large. So our parser would be very slow. The y flag is exactly the right thing here.

Eğitim haritası


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